Posts in ‘sexual behaviour’ category

Measuring patient experience and outcome in health care settings on receiving care after sexual violence

Posted on 15th October 2016 by · No comments

We are delighted to receive support from STIRF and the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham Charity (QEHBC) to fund research in the area of sexual violence.

The project aims to increase our understanding of what matters to patients when they attend health care settings after experiencing sexual violence. This is on the background of the reporting of sexual offences in the UK being at the highest level since introduction of the National Crime Recording Standard in 2002, and also an awareness that it can be extremely difficult for patients to present to health care services, disclose what has happened and seek support.

This systematic review will collect data from a wide range of sources and will be reviewed in a robust and thorough manner, to look at patient experience and outcome after attending a range of health care settings. Identifying key themes and practice that are of greatest importance to patients will then be disseminated to a wide and relevant audience so that this can be put into practice.

Rachel Caswell

Risks for pelvic inflammatory disease in students

Posted on 17th February 2016 by · No comments

In the latest issue of the Sexually Transmitted Infections, Phillip Hay and colleagues in the UK report on a prospective study of female students attending 11 universities and 9 further education colleges in London.

At the start, the students were asked to fill a questionnaire and provide a self taken vaginal sample for infection screening. After 12 months, they were assessed for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a condition that can lead to infertility and other complications.

PID was found in 1.6% of the particpants. Unsurprisingly the strongest predictor of PID was the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis at the first visit (relative risk (RR) 5.7).

However, adjusting for this, the authors reported that significant predictors of PID were ≥2 sexual partners (RR 4.0) or a new sexual partner during follow-up (RR 2.8), and age <20 years (RR 3.3). Somewhat surprisingly recruitment from a further education college rather than a university also increased the relative risk of PID 2.6 fold, perhaps reflecting different health protection behaviors (eg condom use) between the two groups.

The study concluded that in addition to known risk factors such as multiple or new partners in the last 12 months and younger age, attending a further education college rather than a university were risk factors for PID.

They recommended that sexual health education and screening programs could be targeted at these high-risk groups.

Sexually abused children should be offered HPV vaccination

Posted on 19th November 2015 by · 1 comment

Should children exposed to sexual abuse be offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination alongside screening for sexually transmitted infections? A recent article in the Lancet argues for a yes answer.

The WHO defines childhood sexual abuse  as the involvement in sexual activity of a child under the age of 18 years who did not give informed consent or is not developmentally prepared.

The global prevalence of childhood sexual abuse is estimated to be 8–31% for girls and 3–17% for boys. The true figures are probably nearer the upper figure.

According to a review, parents were the perpetrators of about 45% of cases of childhood sexual abuse in the USA, and other relatives were responsible for a further 19%.  Others included figures of authority such as priests and teachers. Survivors of such abuse are often hesitant to report such incidents because of shame and fear of retribution. Thus, the incidence and prevalence of childhood sexual abuse is almost certainly underestimated. Read the rest of this post »

Daily pri-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prevents HIV infection in high risk gay men

Posted on 23rd September 2015 by · No comments

Daily HIV medicine taken by men who have sex with men (MSM) reduces risk of HIV infection by 86% as was reported by Molina J-M, and colleagues in the ANRS Ipergay trial  at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections held in Seattle, USA in 2015 (23LB.).

Molina et al reported the final results of a three year study which randomised MSM who were negative for HIV to either take daily HIV prophylaxis with two anti-retroviral drugs in a single tablet immediately or deferred for 1 year.

The study showed that those taking the drugs on a daily basis have a 86% reduction in the risk of being infected by HIV than MSM not taking the drug (p=0.0001). The trial was stopped in October of 2014 and all participants in the  deferred group were offered pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)

As a Lancet editorial commented:

The science is now clear: oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with a coformulation of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (Truvada) significantly reduces the risk of HIV infection among individuals at high risk of HIV infection.

The news that PrEP has shown consistent efficacy among those who take it as prescribed should be a cause for celebration, and galvanise action to ensure access to PrEP for those who could benefit the most. But almost 3 years since the US Food and Drug Administration approved tenofovir–emtricitabine for PrEP little is being done on implementation.

With more than 2 million new HIV infections every year worldwide, it is time for that to change.

Lesbian and bisexual health facts

Posted on 17th August 2015 by · No comments

The US based Centre for disease control (CDC) has recently updated its factsheet on lesbian and bisexual health. The CDC emphasises the potential risks of acquiring sexually transmitted infections and HIV from certain sexual practices. The article provides advise on how lesbian and bisexual women can protect themselves.

One in ten men in Britain report paying for sex sometime in their life – a national study

Posted on 27th May 2015 by · No comments

The National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NATSAL) is a survey of men and women carried out in the Britain every 10 years. It remains the most extensive and accurate study of sexual behaviour in a carefully selected population of men and women in the UK that reflect the population of sexually active individuals.

Natsal-3 is a  sample survey of 15,162 men and women (6,293 men) aged 16–74 years, resident in Britain, undertaken between September 2010 and August 2012. Participants were interviewed using a combination of face-to-face, computer-assisted, personal interviewing (CAPI) and computer-assisted self-interviewing (CASI). The more sensitive questions, including those on paying for sex and sex while outside the UK, were asked in the CASI.  

Kyle Jones and her colleagues reported on the results of the questions relating to men who admitted to have paid for sex. 

Their results show that round one in 10 men in Britain report having ever paid for sex at some time. These men are more sexually active than men who do not report having had paid for sex. They have a higher number of sexual partners, only a minority (18.4%) of which are paid.

They are also more likely to report a diagnoses of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) even when accounting for their disproportionately larger number of sexual partners (which is considered the most important behavioural variable associated with STI diagnoses).

This evidence strongly supports the idea that this subgroup of men are a bridge for the sort of sexual mixing (dissociative mixing) that increases the spread of STIs.

Men who pay for sex (MPS) are most likely to be aged between 25 and 34 years, single, in managerial or professional occupations, and have high partner numbers.

After adjusting for the key risk behaviour of sexual partner numbers, these men still report many other sexual behaviours, such as having new foreign partners while outside the UK, less attendance at STI clinic and less condom use. They therefore show an increased vulnerability to STI without taking the necessary precautions.

Interestingly, for some reported behaviours, such as sex partners outside the UK, same sex contact, sex partners found online, and concurrent partners (more than one partner at any time), total and paid partner numbers increase.

This suggests that MPS exhibiting these behaviours have higher lifetime partner numbers than other MPS as well as higher paid partner numbers, putting them at a higher risk for STIs than other MPS.

sexual health teaching at schools works for girls better than boys

Posted on 20th March 2015 by · 2 comments

Men and women, aged 17–24 years, were interviewed from 2010–2012 for third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles in the UK. The authors  examined how the source of information about sexual matters was associations with sexual behaviours and outcomes.

The study looked at the main source of information (school, a parent or other); age and circumstances of first heterosexual intercourse; unsafe sex and distress about sex in past year; experience of sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses. Women were also asked if they ever had non-volitional sex or an abortion.

The results,  published in the BMJ, concluded that gaining information mainly from school was associated with reduction of a range of negative sexual health outcomes, particularly among women. These included, older age at first sex, less likelihood of unsafe sex and previous STI diagnosis. In all cases the effect was more significant for women.

Women were also more likely to be sexually competent at first sex and less likely to have  non-volitional sex, abortion and distress about sex. 

Gaining information mainly from a parent was associated with some of these, but fewer participants cited parents as a primary source.

The findings emphasise the benefit of school and parents providing information about sexual matters and argue for a stronger focus on the needs of men.

Call for HPV vaccination for school age boys

Posted on 22nd August 2014 by · 1 comment

In a recent editorial in the British Medical Journal (available only on subscription), Margaret Stanley and coauthors urged the UK government to introduce a gender neutral vaccination programme against HPV in schools for boys and girls aged 12-13 to reduce not only ano-genital warts but HPV-related cancers. These include cervical cancer in women, anal cancers in men who have sex with men and oropharyngeal cancers.

The authors point out that  oropharyngeal cancers have the fastest rising incidence (15% per year) and anal cancer rates in the UK have risen by nearly 300% in the last 40 years..

Transmitting an STI and the law

Posted on 31st July 2014 by · No comments

On May 8 2014 the UK Court of Appeal dismissed the appeal of David Golding against a 14 month prison sentence for transmitting herpes to his partner.

An Editorial in the BMJ by Emily Clarke an colleagues highlights the numerous and  complicated issues that arise from this verdict including:

what constitutes grievous bodily harm,

how you determine that sexual transmission has occurred,

how serious is herpes infection, and

what this judgement means both for health care workers who advise and inform patients on the risks of transmission and on the infected individual and their duty of informing all partners of potential risk of transmitting an infection even during asymptomatic shedding.

The Editorial correctly highlights the dangers of criminalizing sexually transmitted infections and the various problems that arise from this judgement which was based on a law passed 170 years ago addressing totally unrelated issues and at a time when STI’s were not understood as they are today.

Bacterial vaginosis fact sheet update by CDC

Posted on 3rd June 2014 by · No comments

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the commonest vaginal infection seen in women. The Centre of Disease Control (CDC) has recently updated its fact sheet on this common condition.

In summary 

BV is linked to an imbalance of “good” and “harmful” bacteria that are normally found in a woman’s vagina. Having a new sex partner or multiple sex partners and douching can upset the balance of bacteria in the vagina and put women at increased risk for getting BV.

BV can cause some serious health risks, including:

Increasing your chance of getting HIV if you have sex with someone who is infected with HIV;

If you are HIV positive, increasing your chance of passing HIV to your sex partner;

Making it more likely that you will deliver your baby too early if you have BV while pregnant;

Increasing your chance of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea.

These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can make it difficult or impossible for you to have children.