Posts in ‘sex workers’ category

Daily pri-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prevents HIV infection in high risk gay men

Posted on 23rd September 2015 by · No comments

Daily HIV medicine taken by men who have sex with men (MSM) reduces risk of HIV infection by 86% as was reported by Molina J-M, and colleagues in the ANRS Ipergay trial  at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections held in Seattle, USA in 2015 (23LB.).

Molina et al reported the final results of a three year study which randomised MSM who were negative for HIV to either take daily HIV prophylaxis with two anti-retroviral drugs in a single tablet immediately or deferred for 1 year.

The study showed that those taking the drugs on a daily basis have a 86% reduction in the risk of being infected by HIV than MSM not taking the drug (p=0.0001). The trial was stopped in October of 2014 and all participants in the  deferred group were offered pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)

As a Lancet editorial commented:

The science is now clear: oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with a coformulation of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (Truvada) significantly reduces the risk of HIV infection among individuals at high risk of HIV infection.

The news that PrEP has shown consistent efficacy among those who take it as prescribed should be a cause for celebration, and galvanise action to ensure access to PrEP for those who could benefit the most. But almost 3 years since the US Food and Drug Administration approved tenofovir–emtricitabine for PrEP little is being done on implementation.

With more than 2 million new HIV infections every year worldwide, it is time for that to change.

One in ten men in Britain report paying for sex sometime in their life – a national study

Posted on 27th May 2015 by · No comments

The National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NATSAL) is a survey of men and women carried out in the Britain every 10 years. It remains the most extensive and accurate study of sexual behaviour in a carefully selected population of men and women in the UK that reflect the population of sexually active individuals.

Natsal-3 is a  sample survey of 15,162 men and women (6,293 men) aged 16–74 years, resident in Britain, undertaken between September 2010 and August 2012. Participants were interviewed using a combination of face-to-face, computer-assisted, personal interviewing (CAPI) and computer-assisted self-interviewing (CASI). The more sensitive questions, including those on paying for sex and sex while outside the UK, were asked in the CASI.  

Kyle Jones and her colleagues reported on the results of the questions relating to men who admitted to have paid for sex. 

Their results show that round one in 10 men in Britain report having ever paid for sex at some time. These men are more sexually active than men who do not report having had paid for sex. They have a higher number of sexual partners, only a minority (18.4%) of which are paid.

They are also more likely to report a diagnoses of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) even when accounting for their disproportionately larger number of sexual partners (which is considered the most important behavioural variable associated with STI diagnoses).

This evidence strongly supports the idea that this subgroup of men are a bridge for the sort of sexual mixing (dissociative mixing) that increases the spread of STIs.

Men who pay for sex (MPS) are most likely to be aged between 25 and 34 years, single, in managerial or professional occupations, and have high partner numbers.

After adjusting for the key risk behaviour of sexual partner numbers, these men still report many other sexual behaviours, such as having new foreign partners while outside the UK, less attendance at STI clinic and less condom use. They therefore show an increased vulnerability to STI without taking the necessary precautions.

Interestingly, for some reported behaviours, such as sex partners outside the UK, same sex contact, sex partners found online, and concurrent partners (more than one partner at any time), total and paid partner numbers increase.

This suggests that MPS exhibiting these behaviours have higher lifetime partner numbers than other MPS as well as higher paid partner numbers, putting them at a higher risk for STIs than other MPS.

Human rights violations against sex workers: burden and effect on HIV

Posted on 31st July 2014 by · 1 comment

This is part of a series of articles on HIV and sex workers published by The Lancet and freely available.

In this article Michelle Decker et al  reviewed evidence from more than 800 studies and reported on the burden and HIV implications of human rights violations against sex workers.

Abuses of human rights are  perpetrated by both state and non-state actors. Such violations directly and indirectly increase HIV susceptibility, and undermine effective HIV-prevention and intervention efforts.

Violations include homicide; physical and sexual violence, from law enforcement, clients, and intimate partners; unlawful arrest and detention; discrimination in accessing health services; and forced HIV testing.

Abuses occur across all policy regimes, although most profoundly where sex work is criminalised through punitive law.

The authors conclude that protection of sex workers is essential to respect, protect, and meet their human rights, and to improve their health and wellbeing.

Research findings affirm the value of rights-based HIV responses for sex workers, and underscore the obligation of states to uphold the rights of this marginalised population.

Sexual health of female sex worker in the UK

Posted on 3rd June 2014 by · No comments

Female sex workers (FSWs) are assumed to be at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using routine STI surveillance data, McGrath-Lone et al  in an article published in the latest issue of Sexually Transmitted Infections investigated differences in sexual health between FSWs and other female attendees at sexual health (genitourinary medicine – GUM) clinics in England.

They reported on 2704 FSWs visiting to 131/208 GUM clinics, (primarily large, FSW-specialist centres in London) in 2011. By comparison with other female attendees, FSWs travelled further for their care and had increased risk of certain STIs (eg, gonorrhoea Odds Ratio: 2.76, p<0.001). Significantly migrant FSWs had better sexual health outcomes than UK-born FSWs (eg, period prevalence of chlamydia among those tested: 8.5% vs 13.5%, p<0.001) but were more likely to experience non-STI outcomes (eg, pelvic inflammatory disease OR: 2.92, p<0.001).

They concluded that although FSWs in England have access to high-quality care through the GUM clinic network, there was evidence of geographical inequality in access to these services.

A minority do not appear to access STI/HIV testing through clinics, and some STIs are more prevalent among FSWs than other female attendees.

Targeted interventions aimed at improving uptake of testing in FSWs should be developed, and need to be culturally sensitive to the needs of this predominantly migrant population.

Bacterial vaginosis fact sheet update by CDC

Posted on 3rd June 2014 by · No comments

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the commonest vaginal infection seen in women. The Centre of Disease Control (CDC) has recently updated its fact sheet on this common condition.

In summary 

BV is linked to an imbalance of “good” and “harmful” bacteria that are normally found in a woman’s vagina. Having a new sex partner or multiple sex partners and douching can upset the balance of bacteria in the vagina and put women at increased risk for getting BV.

BV can cause some serious health risks, including:

Increasing your chance of getting HIV if you have sex with someone who is infected with HIV;

If you are HIV positive, increasing your chance of passing HIV to your sex partner;

Making it more likely that you will deliver your baby too early if you have BV while pregnant;

Increasing your chance of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea.

These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can make it difficult or impossible for you to have children.

A tale of two cities: Sex work in India

Posted on 27th March 2014 by · No comments

Talk given at University College London by Maryam Shahmanesh. Maryam studied sex workers in Goa and Karnataka province and the relation of risks to sexual health and HIV and  government policy.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F43ebh6Mbf8